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WHAT IS HORDENINE?

Hordenine (N,N-dimethyltyramine) is an adrenergic-like compound found in a variety of foods and has been investigated for its fat-burning effects – it can often be found in pre-workouts and fat-burners. Technically hordenine can be used as a stimulant and fat burner due to its association with tyramine and noradrenaline, but not enough evidence exists currently to support its usage in humans as nutritional supplementation.


Adrenergic compounds mimic or interfere with the functioning of the sympathetic nervous system. This means they affect the release or action of norepinephrine and epinephrine. These hormones, which are also known as noradrenaline and adrenaline, are secreted by the adrenal gland (hence their association with the term adrenergic). The primary actions of norepinephrine and epinephrine are to mediate the “fight-or-flight response.” This is why they are responsible for constriction of blood vessels (vasoconstriction), which increases blood pressure, and is also responsible for accelerating the rate and force of contractions of the heart.


In animal experiments where a large dose of hordenine is administered by injection, hordenine produces an increase in blood pressure, and other disturbances of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and nervous systems. The effects are generally not reproduced by oral administration of the drug in test animals, but there are very limited scientific reports of the effects of hordenine in human beings that have been published.


Hordenine can be found as a component of Bitter Orange, and is one of the many biogenic amines in bitter orange that have since become dietary supplements, including synephrine and octopamine. Whilst synephrine and octopamine are listed as banned substances by WADA in competition – hordenine is not a specified stimulant, although the similar chemical structure and similar biological effect from hordenine may render it a banned in competition status.



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